When we talk about silent diseases, we mainly refer to hypertension and hypotension, which are 2 disorders related to the blood pressure in the arteries. It is necessary to be attentive to its consequences and, thus, determine their cause as well as being able to treat them appropriately.
What is hypotension?
Hypotension, also known as low blood pressure, can be inherited and is more common than high blood pressure, especially in thin, young women.
If the mother has suffered it, the daughter is more likely to do so and in most cases, it does not always produce noticeable symptoms and people do not treat it.
Low blood pressure can cause problems such as hypothyroidism, Addison’s disease, insufficiency in the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland, heart failure, pericarditis, heart rhythm disorders and other cardiovascular ailments and fluid deficiency.
Sometimes we do not notice what is causing us hypotension, but in some cases, prescription drugs can also cause hypotension. Some of them are psychotropics for insomnia, anguish or depression, also drugs that treat cardiac arrhythmias.
What would be the symptoms?
The circulatory symptoms appear when there is a deficit in the blood supply in the brain.
This can occur, for example, on hot days or by being under the sun at noon.
Fatigue and asthenia are very frequent and may appear after eating, In case of presenting low blood pressure, the person may suffer one of several of these symptoms, such as fatigue, need to sleep more hours, decreased physical shape, problems concentrating, emotional depressive responses, apathy, dizziness, eye blinking, visual disturbances, sleep disorders, greater sensitivity to cold, especially in the feet and hands, cold sweating, rapid onset of fatigue and skin pallor, mostly in the face.
What is hypertension?
Hypertension is the elevation of blood pressure levels continuously or sustained.
Therefore it is important to note that blood pressure is when the heart puts pressure on the arteries to conduct blood to the different organs of the human body, likewise, the maximum pressure is obtained in each contraction of the heart and the minimum, with each relaxation.
High blood pressure can develop at any time of life, without distinction of gender, it is considered a disease of the cardiovascular system and can lead to heart attacks, and likewise, it can permanently affect vital organs, such as the brain, heart, kidneys, and eyes.
A person may suffer high blood pressure as a result of obesity or overweight, lack of physical activity and sedentary lifestyle, excessive salt intake, consumption of saturated fats, alcohol, stress, and smoking.
What would be the symptoms?
It is necessary to pay attention to the signals that the body gives us such as the difficulty to fall asleep at night, slight irritability, restless sleep and recurring nightmares, waking up several times before dawn, hearing problems such as buzzing or ringing in the ears, intense headaches or dizziness may indicate that we are facing a case of hypertension, especially when they appear after an episode of high stress, nerves or anxiety.
Hypertension can appear in anyone regardless of age, from children to the elderly, so in the case of hypertension in children it is produced by childhood obesity, specialists are alarmed due to the increasing number of hypertensive children that exist in the world.
With this type of silent disease, it is recommended to parents or caregivers extreme care of infants thus preventing its occurrence with a balanced diet, exercise, and control of blood pressure, since these steps are vital for the health of children.
Hypertension is also very common in women since they usually have lower systolic blood pressure values than men.
However, systolic blood pressure increases with age, in addition, oral contraceptives produce a slight elevation of blood pressure in most women and may cause hypertension in a small proportion due to the use of this type of medication. The same happens with hormone replacement therapy.
During pregnancy hypertensive disorders continue to be a major cause of problems that cause diseases in the fetus and during the neonatal period.
And finally, hypertension in the elderly. As systolic blood pressure rises with age, it has been considered for a long time that the increase in pressure is normal in advanced ages, but it is recommended that they should remain within normal ranges at all ages to decrease the risk of cardiovascular complications.
How are hypertension and hypotension measured?
By means of an arm blood pressure monitor.
As the blood pressure changes throughout the day and night, the measurement should preferably be made at regular preestablished intervals…
If the tensiometer is for the arm, the cuff is placed two or three centimeters above the elbow, leaving the palm of the hand on the back and the elbow slightly flexed at the height of the heart.
If the tensiometer is for the wrist, the wristband is placed at the height of the heart.
What indications must you have for a precise blood pressure measurement?
- A quiet room is ideal, without noise or interruptions, with a temperature of 20-25 ºC.
- You must be relaxed.
- Do not drink, eat, smoke or exercise the previous hour, resting completely 5 minutes before taking it.
- Sit comfortably with your back resting on the back of the chair, not crossing your legs and take off any clothing that may press your arm.
- Do not talk during the measurement.
- Make 2 separate measurements with an interval of at least two minutes and the result is the average of both.
Being this a disorder which seems to appear from nowhere, the best treatment for hypertension is a good prevention.
For this, it is essential to follow a healthy-heart lifestyle. For this the steps to follow are,
- Not smoking, as tobacco increases blood pressure and heart rate.
- Beware of alcohol, moderate alcohol consumption, a glass of wine a day in the meals can be beneficial, but if it is excessive it causes the increase of the arterial pressure and other harmful alterations to other organs.
- Weight control. Overweight is a well-known cause of hypertension, for that reason, you must maintain a stable weight since it reduces the blood pressure and reduces cardiovascular risk and diabetes.
- You should take into account exercise since the practice of physical exercise regulates and manages to lower the blood pressure figures.
- Establish a heart-healthy diet, decreasing the consumption of salt and food that they contain it. Consume abundant fruits, vegetables, legumes, nuts, bread, and other cereals.
- Pharmacological treatment is also important if the person is hypertensive, the previous recommendations are not enough since it is possible that they should follow a specific drug treatment for their high blood pressure levels.