Infection with the human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV / AIDS) is a spectrum of diseases caused by the infection caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). After the initial infection, a person may not Note any symptoms or you may experience a brief influenza-like period.
Typically, a prolonged period with no symptoms follows. As the infection progresses, it interferes more with the immune system, increasing the risk of common infections such as tuberculosis, as well as other opportunistic infections and tumors that rarely affect people with a healthy immune system. These late symptoms of infection are known as AIDS, a stage that is often also associated with weight loss.
How this disease is also known as the (HIV)
HIV is transmitted mainly by sex: unprotected (including anal and in sometimes oral sex), contaminated blood transfusions, and hypodermic needles and from mother to child during pregnancy, delivery or breastfeeding. Somebody fluids, such as saliva and tears, do not transmit HIV. Among the methods of prevention are safe sex, needle exchange programs, treatment of the infected and circumcision. The infection of the baby can often be prevented by giving antiretroviral medication to both the mother and the child. There is no cure or vaccine; however, antiretroviral treatment can delay the course of the disease and can lead to a near-normal life expectancy. It is recommended to start the treatment as soon as the diagnosis is made. Without treatment, the average survival time after infection is 11 years.
In 2014, approximately 36.9 million people lived with HIV and caused 1.2 million deaths. The majority of infected people live in sub-Saharan Africa. Between its discovery and 2014, AIDS has caused an estimated 39 million deaths worldwide. HIV / AIDS is considered a pandemic: an outbreak of disease present in a large area and with active propagation. Based on genetic studies, it has been determined that HIV is a mutation of SIV that was transmitted to humans between 1910 and 1930, in west-central Africa. AIDS was recognized for the first time by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
HIV / AIDS has had a great impact on society, as a disease and as a source of discrimination. The disease also has strong economic impacts. There are many misconceptions about HIV / AIDS as the belief that it can be transmitted through nonsexual casual contact. The disease has been the focus of many controversies related to religion, including the decision of the Catholic Church not to support the use of condoms as prevention. HIV / AIDS has attracted international medical and political attention as well as massive funding since its identification.
Different states of HIV infection.
- Category A: patients with primary infection or asymptomatic.
- Category B: patients who present or have presented symptoms that do not belong to category C, but are related to HIV infection:
- Bacillary angiomatosis.
- Vulvovaginal candidiasis, or oral candidiasis resistant to treatment.
- Dysplasia of the uterine cervix or non-invasive cervical carcinoma.
- Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID).
- Fever less than 38.5 ° C or diarrhea, with more than one month
Category C: patients who present or have presented some complications included in the WHO definition of AIDS of 1987:
Recurrent Salmonella septicemia (other than Salmonella enterica sub. enterica serotype Typhi).
- Infection by the Mycobacterium avium complex (MAI).
- Atypical mycobacterial infections.
- Cytomegalovirus infection (retinitis or disseminated).
- Infection with the herpes simplex virus (HSV types 1 and 2), it can be chronic or in the form of bronchitis, pneumonitis or esophagitis.
- Candidiasis, both disseminated as esophagus, trachea or lungs.
- Coccidioidomycosis, extrapulmonary or disseminated.
- Extrapulmonary cryptococcosis.
- Histoplasmosis, either disseminated or extrapulmonary.
- Neurological toxoplasmosis.
- Chronic intestinal cryptosporidiosis.
- Chronic intestinal isosporiasis.
- Chronic processes: bronchitis and pneumonia.
- HIV Processes directly associated:
- Dementia related to HIV (encephalopathy due to HIV).
- Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy.
- Wear syndrome.
- Kaposi’s sarcoma.
- Burkitt’s lymphoma.
- Other non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas, especially immunoblastic lymphoma, primary brain lymphoma or B-cell lymphoma
- Invasive carcinoma of the cervix
The human immunodeficiency syndrome is infected in many ways but the most common is known by sexual transmission so when you go to have sex with your partner to be sure to put your condom so you are not avoiding this disease if some that are also infected by this same route make sure you always use your condom when it comes to being with your partner.