A new virus has been detected in the world after, in December 2019, the Wuhan health centers in China admitted a group of patients with idiopathic pneumonia.
This virus was made known in a market for seafood and live animals in Wuhan where the first infectious focus was found, thus causing the closure of the commercial space.
However, the agglomeration of people in the vicinity of the place in the spring festival caused the spread of the disease to others.
Scientists identified the new disease as SARS-2 or 2019- nCov, which after 2019 for practicality called it COVID-19, following recommendations of the World Health Organization (WHO) on February 11, 2020 to the media .
By that date, the WHO had already received 42,704 confirmed cases of which 1,017 died in the province of Hubei (Wuhan). Along with 24 countries, 323 cases were presented with a deceased investigator able to identify SARS-CoV-2 with the implementation of the real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).
The number of positive RT-PCRs increased rapidly, to the point of being declared a public health emergency of International concern (PHEIC) by the WHO, and then a pandemic from the beginning of the pandemic to the present, the Johns Hopkins University records 9.93.618 cases, with 49.427 deaths.
Form of transmission.
Studies indicate that the main route of infection occurs from a person infected to a healthy one, through the expulsion of drops from the buccal nasal area, when coughing or exhaling, at a distance of two meters. The fluid particles that are expelled or fall on a surface, generate infection quickly in those who are unknowingly exposed to SARS-CoV-2. But it is also possible that contagion occurs when you inhale the drops spread by the person with the virus.
The incubation period for SARS-CoV-2 is 3 to 9 days with emphasis on the first five days after infection. During the first days of the illness, it is that the person presents some symptoms, although it is possible that someone can be infected by someone who has a slight cough.
There is no evidence of contagion by air, nor were traces of RNA detected in urine from positive patients. Although it can be detected even in plastic.
The permanence of viable SARS-CoV-2 on surface copper, cardboard, plastic stainless steel was 4,24,48 and 72 hours, respectively at 21 -23 C 40% relative humidity in another study at 22 C and 60% of Moisture was detected, the virus after 3 hours on a paper surface (printing or tissue paper) after 1 to 2 days on wood, clothing or glass and more than 4 days on stainless steel, plastic, money bills and surgical masks.
With the above, it is shown that SARS-CoV-2 has numerous transmission routes to humans, inviting the maximum to implement the necessary protection and prevention measures because there are cases that are asymptomatic.
Impact on guest philosophy.
en SARS- CoV-2 is a single positive strand RNA virus protected by a lipid bilayer that attaches to the membrane of the receptor cell and produces RNA in the cell that surrounds the nucleus, generating in turn generating many proteins virological. Then it happens that the genes of multiplied RNA and the macromolecules of the synthesized virus unify into new viruses to leave the cell.
Said virus enters through the unification of two proteins. The virus’s opponent is the so-called spike protein (S), a glycoprotein referred to as a homotrimer in the viral coat.
The protein (S) has two subunits, S1, which has the autonomy of binding to the receptor that goes to host cells, and S2, which is responsible for the regulation of membrane fusion. Now these S proteins are linked to ACE2, a human protein present in adipose tissue, kidney, lung and heart.
When protein S is unified with ACE2, they cause membrane binding and entry of SARS-CoV-2 into the cell at the right time for potential procedures and vaccines.
SARS-CoV-2 is a silent enemy that attacks the body slowly and precisely, which is why prevention is the only mechanism so far to avoid any type of SARS-CoV-2 or COVID19 infection.
The best strategy to deal with the virus is controlling the source of infection and achieving a diagnosis as quickly as possible that helps to register the chaos, isolate the infected, provide treatment for the symptoms, in order to avoid chaos in the population.
However, individually there are methods that are also essential to avoid the spread of SARS-CoV-2 such as maintaining correct hand hygiene through constant washing with soap and water or alcohol, preventing the crowding of people in a closed place As well as ventilating the internal spaces, physical contact between people with or without the disease should also be dispensed with, with a distance of at least two meters.
Hygiene measures are necessary after being in contact with an infected person, who must use the same bathroom and food utensils.
In the case of exposure in public transport systems, it is necessary to use masks, as well as avoid passing your hand over the face, nose and eyes.