el sistema urinario
el-sistema-urinario

Urine infections are caused by the invasion of microorganisms in the urinary tract, producing an increased frequency of urination, pelvic discomfort or pain in the lower abdomen, and the presence of dense and bloody urine.

What is the prevalence of urine infection?

Urine infections in general and those that affect the lower part of the urinary tract, in particular, are very well known and are denominated Cystitis. They are the second most common cause of infections attended in primary care after respiratory infections.

Causes.

Urinary tract infections (UTI), are dependent on several factors  depending on age and sex. In young women, the most common causes are the use of spermicides and sexual intercourse. In young men, urine infections are more rare and they seem to be related to sexual activity.

In postmenopausal women, urine infections are frequent in those with a history of prior UTIs during childbearing age. In men over 50 years of age, the most frequent cause is a persistent bacterial infection in the prostate.

For both sexes, when over 80 years of age, it is highly dangerous,often requiring hospitalization and even the need of carrying permanent urinary incontinence probes.

Symptoms of urine infections.

The clinical aspects of cystitis can vary depending on the degreeof infection. These are the most common symptoms of urine infection:

  • Urgent and frequent need to urinate.
  • Itching or burning in the urethra when urinating.
  • Redness on the vulva and vaginal itching (in women).
  • Pain when having sex.
  • Dense abnormal colored urine.
  • Appearance of blood in the urine.
  • Fever chills (fever may mean the infection has reached the kidneys).
  • Pain in the sides or back indicates infection in the kidneys.
  • Women may feel pressure above the pubic bone, and men feel dilation of the rectum.
  • Being more irritable than normal.

Types of urinary infections.

a) Lower urinary tract infections (cystitis, urethritis, and prostatitis)

b) Upper urinary tract ( pyelonephritis, bacterial nephritis, and perinephric abscess).

Diagnostics.

The test and analysis that will have to be performed on the patient with a urinary infection depend on the location where the infection is presumed to be and the symptoms that the patient suffers from.

Physical exam.

The doctor palpates the patient’s abdominal and pelvic area to detect places with pain or redness.

Urine analysis.

A urine sample from the patient is examined to see if it contains any infectious agent (harmful germs) and to what degree.

Urine cultures.

A drop in some of these liquids is sown in a plate with nutrients for bacteria and after several hours have elapsed for it to grow, it is determined what type of bacteria is the cause of the infection, and which antibiotics can be effective.

Cystoscopy.

It consists of introducing through the urethra a tube equipped with a digital lense and light to observe the state of the urethra and the urinary bladder.

Abdominal ultrasound.

It is a non-invasive study of the abdomen that is performed using ultrasounds that form an image on a monitor.

Treatments.

This includes antibiotics, if it is, being caused by bacteria, or antivirals if they are caused by viruses, it depends on the type of infection and the treatment will be done accordingly.

When you feel any related discomfort to what we have described here, immediately consult your doctor. Remember that prevention is better than regret.

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